Origin of the Armenian people
Armenians - autonym Guy (or [khay]) - it is one of few on the earth "first-born" peoples. At the basis of their origin lies beautiful biblical legend about the wonderful rescuing of noy and its family on the mountain peak ararat. However, similar or similar legends are the basis of the history of many peoples. The book of existence calls posterity of noy on the names and indicates the initial settling of this posterity near ararat in The [sanaarskoy] valley. Much of these information is confirmed by ancient [khaldeyskimi], Syrian and Greek historians.
On biblical legend one of the great-grandsons of noy, the grandson Of [iafeta], the son of Homer, By [forgom] even with the life shared their possessions between the sons. Nut was reached Armenia, it became the founder of the dynasty of the first Armenian tsars - [Gaykidov], and by the ancestor of Armenians. Legend says, that, being simultaneously one of the main ancestors of babylonian, [Gayk] participated in building of the Tower of Babel at the proposal of the main [khaldeyskogo] ancestor of bel (the very same Nimrod). But, after feeling that the bel is approached individual supremacy, [Gayk] together with the sons returned to its earth. Bel did not forgive this nut.
Attempting to avoid the open collisions and by craftiness to subordinate to itself nut, bel proposed to it to select any, even most fertile earth of Babylon for the migration within the limits of its possessions. [Gayk] categorically refused. Then bel declared war nut. This was the first war in the history of humanity documentary fixed. The decisive battle occurred in The [vanskogo] lake, where the troops of bel were broken, and it itself perished from the arrow nut. On the spot battle was built [Gayk] city in the honor of conqueror. Biblical legend so says.
However, the historical process of the forming of Armenian people was, certainly, considerably more complex
Large people, being formed, absorbs into himself hundreds of small peoples, tribes, kinds. Raids, achievements, migrations, religious traditions also influence this process. Armenian people was formed according to all these laws. The ancient Armenian historians of fogs - [Ibas] - [Katina] (II v. B.C.), [Moisey] [Khorenskiy], Agafangel (IV v.), etc testify about many small tribes ([Aguvany], albane, [utiytsy], [kartmaniytsy], [dzhanariytsy], [dzotiytsy], [karkariytsy] and other), which were settled in the different parts of Armenia, but they were completely assimilated by Armenians.
Also completely were assimilated million of semites, captivated by Armenian tsar [Grachya]. Specifically, their medium left the powerful kind Of [bagratuni], that gave princes, great generals and tsarist dynasty, which guided in Armenia, and then to Georgia. Were completely assimilated Chinese migrants, who received possessions On the Border with Georgia, and the title of princes [Orbelianov] and [Mamikonyanov], whose descendants by faith and as truth served Armenia.
The process of the forming of Armenian people continued gradually, but the most important role played the fact that it ended in the ancient times. Self-consciousness of Armenians as united people, was formed, probably, even in the early period of Armenian statehood, and, practically, it did not undergo any serious changes, also, to the present
About this testifies the Armenian language
The attempt to carry the Armenian language to any lingual group it did not bring to nothing. It composed the separate group of Indo-European lingual family. The contemporary alphabet of Armenians was invented By [mesropom] [Mashtotsem] in IV v. its creation was not simple copying of the already existing alphabets. [Mashtotsem] and by its students, among whom was [Moisey] [Khorenskiy], were carried out the most extensive scientific searches. To [Persiyu], Egypt, Greece, Rome were directed the young people, purpose of which was detailed study of language, its sonic number and correspondence of sound with its letter designation.
This was its kind the long-standing linguistic expedition, at end of which were assembled [pererabotany] of the information, on basis of which was created original Armenian alphabet. Its accuracy and uniqueness is proven by the centuries: it is known that the lingual composition of speech after the time changes, ancient language becomes "corpse" (Ancient Greek, Latin), whereas the uniqueness of the alphabet Of [mashtotsa] is allowed and today freely to speak on the ancient-Armenian and to read ancient Armenian manuscripts. Although the vocabulary of language changed, its sonic number remained before, and entire wealth of vocal sounding found its embodiment in the Armenian alphabet. [Mesrop] Of [mashtots] is the creator of Georgian alphabet.
It was until recently considered that before the appearance of an alphabet Of [mashtotsa] the Armenians used Persian characters, and before they did not have their written language. Actually, in the period of the administration Of [arshakidov] - dynasty, which has close blood bonds with the Persian tsars - official documents, correspondence they conducted in the Persian language, and to indicate the presence of more ancient written language in Armenians was not felt after the absence "of material evidence". Very recently, at the end last year, the group of young scientists from Yerevan made the attempt to decipher, those not being before practically yielded to reading characters To [urartu].
Ancient-Armenian language served as key. Unfortunately, in our press as yet there are no official publications on this question, but there is a large probability that cuneiform To [urartu] of [ibyla] by the earliest alphabet of Armenians. There is some information about the fact that to [Mesropa] Of [mashtotsa] there was a certain Armenian alphabet, which consists of 28 letters, that it did not absolutely correspond to a sonic number the Armenian language. The alphabet Of [mashtotsa] consists of 36 letters.
Speaking about the Armenian written language, one cannot fail to speak also about the first Armenian historians and writers, because of which much of the antiquity downy to the present. As the earliest Armenian historian is considered fogs - [Ibas]- Of [katina], secretary tsar [Vagarshak] by the I. after obtaining permission of Persian tsar [Arshak] to be occupied in the archives Of [ninevii], where were stored those seized by the Persians of the library of Babylon, fogs - [Ibas] on the basis of the [khaldeyskim] sources wrote the history of Armenia from the first tsars to Tigran of the I. this work downy to us only in the lists.
Agafangel - secretary tsar [Trdat], who wrote the history of the propagation of Christianity in Armenia (IV v.) Grigoriy [Prosvetitel] - author of the collection of sermons and prayers in the Armenian language. [Postus] Of [byuzand] - it composed the history of Armenia from 344 - 392[gg]. [Mesrop] Of [mashtots] - in the collaboration with [katolikosom] [Saakom] translated holy writing to the Armenian language, the author [Trebnik] (known by the name Of [mashdots]) and holiday [Minei]. [Moisey] [Khorenskiy] - author of the history of Armenia in the 4th books. To [egishe] - left to descendants the description of the wars of Armenians with the Persians between 439 - 463 yr. Lazarus [Parbetsi] - the history of Armenia 388 - 484 yr. David [Nepobedimyy] - philosophical transactions about the beginnings. Among the authors OF VII of the century: [Ioannes] Of [mamikonyan] - history of princes [Mamikonyanov]. [Shirakatsi] - called [Arifmetikom], astronomer, the compiler of Armenian calendar. [Moisey] IS IIND the author of grammar and rhetoric. ViII the century: Hans [Otsnetsi]- [ator] of lectures against the heresies. XI the century: Thomas [Artsruni] - history of the house Of [artsruniev]; historians Hans VI, [Moisey] [Kagkantovotsi]; Grigoriy [Magistros] - author of the grammar the Armenian language and written in verse arrangement "history of the book of the Old and New Covenant". ; [Aristakes] Of [lasdiverdtsi] - "the history of Armenia and adjacent cities" (988 - 1071 yr.). THE XII the century: Samuel - compiler of chronologies from the creation of peace until 1179. Doctor [Mkhitar] - "comfort in the fever". [Nerses] Of [klaetsi] - patriarch, theologian, the author of the written in verse arrangement of bible, which includes 8000 verses. [Mkhitar] of levro - author of 190 fables, arches of the laws of church and civil. XIII the century: Stephen [Orbelian] - bishop is [syunikskiy], the author of elegy "weeping about [Echmiadzine]". [Vartan] is great - author "universal history from the creation of peace until 1267.". [Kirakos] Of [kandzaketsi] - described destruction by Mongolians in 1230. The [ani] city and the flight of Armenians into Astrakhan, [Trapezund], Poland. [Magakiya] Of [apega] - it described the intrusions of Tatars into Asia until 1272. [Mkhitar] Of [anetsi] - gave rich information on the history of Armenia, Georgia, [Persii] and translated astronomy from the Persian language. [Aristakes] - author "science or indications as must correctly write" and "the dictionary the Armenian language". XIV century brought terrible tests to Armenian people.
Undergoing continuous persecutions, to destruction, Armenians searched for rescuings in other countries
When in man house burns, it unaccountable is sufficient the most valuable, trying to save. Among the most valuable things, which saved the Armenians, sometimes with the price of our own life, there were the books - keepers of the memory of people, its language, history, culture. These books, rescued from the fire, waters, enemy profanations, are assembled today in the treasure-house of Armenia - [Matenodarane]. Among them there are numerous such, which are rewritten, but more accurately they are drawn again by absolutely illiterate people, which know how either to read or to write. But precisely because of their high patriotic exploit, today we can read the ancient sources, pulled out by hands and works of these people from the nonexistence.
With the appearance of printing in XVI v. Armenian literature continued its development. Everywhere, where Armenians settled, they tried to open their printing house. Thus, in 1568. this printing house appeared in Venice, and in XVII v. were based printing houses in Milan, Paris, Amsterdam, Leipzig, Constantinople it is later in London, Smyrna, Madras, [Echmiadzine], Trieste, Tiflis, [Shushe], Astrakhan, in Petersburg (1783[g].), Nakhichevan'. With the migration of Armenians into America, the printing houses appeared also in many countries of new In [sveta].[Nazad]....
State history of Armenia
The state history of Armenia, according to the evidence of ancient sources, counts 3,671 years - with 2,107 g. B.C. on 1,395[g]. - the ancient and average history, and altogether only 169 years of the newest, directly connected with the release of the part of the Armenian earth by the Russian troops and the formation of the principality of Yerevan in 1828
Armenia in the period from 2,017 to our era until 331 to our era - dynasty is the nut
After death of legendary nut in 2026. B.C. administration switched over to its son [Armenaku]. It passed in the people for the collector of the earth of Armenian. The borders of Armenia considerably were enlarged because of its policy, many tribes voluntarily entered within the limits of Armenia. Apparently, Armenia as state, she stated about themselves precisely into its administration, t to adjacent states ([Persiya], Greece, etc) appropriated to the new country the name of its sovereign - Armenia (earth Of [armenaka]).
[Armais] - 1980 g. B.C. -, the son Of [armenaka], continued the policy of strengthening state, [vozdvig] on [Araks] r. coasts the ancient capital Of [armavir].
[Amasiya] - 1940 g. B.C. - the son Of [armaisa], conducted the intensive building in the foot of ararat, which therefore acquired its second name - [Masis].
To [kegam] - 1908 g B.C. - the son Of [amasii]; [Garma] - 1858 - the son Of [kegama].
To ares - 1827 g. B.C. - the son Of [garmy], by his victories considerably enlarged the borders of Armenia in all directions. The successes of Armenian tsar worried the Assyrian owner Nina, who could not forgive to Armenians and loss of his ancestor of bel. Fearing the open collisions, the Nina it decided to resort to the craftiness and to draw [Arama] to its side: in the sign of favor powerful Assyrian tsar allowed to bear [Aramu] pearl bandage and ordered to call his second on himself. Some ancient historians connect the name of the country Armenia with the name Of [arama]. However, To [aramu] is assigned the first geographical separation of Armenia (large, small).
Are excellent ([Kegetsik]) - 1769 g. B.C. - the son Of [arama], inherited to the father not long before death Nina, wife of whom was excellent [Semiramida] (To [shamiram]). Stories about the beauty of have long ago disturbed the imagination Of [semiramidy]. After widowing, it sent to the are of ambassadors with the rich gifts and the proposal to visit its court, most magnificent for those times to Asia. Are ignored the proposal of powerful tsarina. After meeting failure, [Semiramida] solved, that the proposal to become only yielded insulted ARU. It sent new embassy with the proposal of hand and throne. Are it refused again, referring to that it is completely happy from its loved by wife [Novary] and its people, which hotly loves its sovereign. [Semiramida] accepted this for the insult and immediately it ordered to gather the troops.
In 1767. B.C. the troops Of [semiramidy] [vtorglis] within the limits of Armenia. That caught unaware, are did not have time to gather the troops and was accepted battle as small forces. [Semiramida] gave order to the troops to deliver to it ARU only by living. But are it did not spare its life, battling shoulder to shoulder with the simple wars against the aggressors. It perished in combat. Inconsolable [Semiramida] ordered to find body ares and to bring it to it. Then it required so that the supreme priest of Armenia [Meras] it would revive body ares. On the legend, for the damping the troops, the expecting miracle, among the soldiers was found the double ares and it was presented to crowd.
In the memory "wonderful reanimation" the ares Of [semiramida] of [vozdvigla] tomb with the memorable inscription. After viewing in subjugated Armenia, [Semiramida] found its climate by healthier and decided to establish here its summer residence. On the shore vans lake it commanded to begin the building of city in its honor - [Shamiramakert]. Cyclopean weir was built for the protection of city from the floods of lake according to the order of tsarina. City was built in the best traditions of babylonian culture, it was supplied with water pipes, baths, it was decorated with gardens, flower gardens, it was built on two three-storied palaces.
Are OF II -1743 g. B.C., ([Kardos]), son the ares of excellent. On the insistence Of [semiramidy] was accepted the name of the killed father and at the twelve-year old age it was set by tsarina by the deputy of Armenia. Armenia became the tributary of Babylon. [Povzroslev], [Ara] OF THE II directed all their forces toward the fight with the Assyrian dominion, remembering about death of its father and hating [Semiramidu]. The are OF THE II it perished in combat. Armenia remained under the rule [Niniya] ([Zamasisa]), the son Of [semiramidy], which itself perished from his hand.
[Anushavan] SOS - 1725 g. B.C. - son the ares THE II, appointed [Niniem] as the ruler of Armenia.
From this period Armenia remained the tributary of Assyria for a period of almost thousand years, although the attempts to get rid of the dependence constantly were made. In this connection this dependence first weakened, then it was strengthened. But the order of the designation of Armenian rulers remained before. The long number of the rulers of this period they are known to historians only on the names, they did not leave any noticeable track in the history of Armenia. The exception the following compose:
[Zarmayr] - 1194 g. B.C. - into its administration the Armenian troops participated in the Trojan war on the side Of [priama]. [Zarmayr] perished under the walls Of [troi]. Its death served as the reason for long agitations in Armenia, which did not leave the hope to be freed from the Assyrian dependence.
[Paruyr] - 742 g. B.C. - in the union with [midyanami] rose against Assyrian tsar [Sardanapal]. Under the pressure of those risen Assyrian reign is fingered after sixteen centuries of existence, and freed Armenia met [Paruyra] that of already decorated with tsarist diadem. [Paruyr] became the first tsar of Armenia.
[Grachya] - 700 g. B.C. - the son Of [paruyra], was the ally of tsar [Navukhodonosor], who subjugated to israelite. Specifically, from this march Of [grachya] it brought, redeemed by it in [Navukhodonosora], notable israelite on the name Of [shambata], which became subsequently the ancestor of the kind Of [bagratuni].
Tigran I- 565 g. B.C. - remained in Armenian history one of most renowned [Gaykidov]. Specifically, with it the possessions to ancient Armenia reached their maximum limits. Armenia flourished. To this its union with Persian tsar Kir contributed. This union strongly disturbed [midiyskogo] tsar [Astiaga], to possessions of whom looked Tigran and Kir. [Astiag] decided to employ any means in order to destroy this union. This means had to become the marriage Of [astiaga] on the dear sister of Armenian tsar [Tirganui]. With its aid [midiyskiy] tsar wanted to quarrel Tigran and Kir, and after using situation, to enlarge its own possessions.
But [Tigranui] remained true to the dear brother and in time warned Armenian tsar about the insidious concept [Astiaga]. Tigran sent angry letter to the insidious relative, and itself began to be prepared for the war. In the severe battle Armenian tsar singlehandedly killed [Astiaga]. As a result this battle reign [Midiyskoe] is fingered. Conqueror returned home with rich trophies and many prisoners, among whom there were high ranking grandees and relatives of [midiyskogo] tsar. Their all Armenian tsar settled in the Nakhichevan' province, after transmitting its control to its sister Of [tigranui], in honor of whom was here built [Tigranakert] city.
[Vakhang] - 520 g. to our era - the son of Tigran, was outstanding personality, he possessed extraordinary courage and force. In the Armenian epos, the folk songs its exploits are glorified. Armenians compare it with Greek Hercules.
Unfortunately, the period of prosperity lasted not for long
Soon Armenia fell under the dependence of its powerful neighbor - [Persii].
[Vakhe] - 331 g. B.C. - is killed in the battle with [Arbelle], protecting Persian tsar [Dariya] OF III [Kodomona] against the new conqueror of Asia Minor, Alexander [Makedonskogo]. With death To [vakhe] ceased the dynasty nut.
Armenia in the period with 331 on 149[gody] to our era
The brilliant victories of Alexander [Makedonskiy] rapidly placed on the elbows powerful before the state of Asia Minor. In their number there was Armenia. This period began for Armenia with control of the deputies of Alexander the Great. This was the usual practice of those times. Usually Alexander assigned deputy from the number of his close companions-in-arms. However, the first deputy in Armenia was the Armenian Of [migran] - 325 - 319 yr. B.C. death of Alexander [Makedonskiy] (323 g. B.C.) destroyed the clear plan of the construction of his great empire.
The symbols of authority, dying, Alexander communicated to the guardian of his young children [Perdikke]. But to the tasty morsel from the large pirogue began to pretend practically all associates of Alexander. New repartition began. Instead of [Migrana] as the deputy of Armenia it was appointed [Neoptolem]. After arriving in the place, it began to rigidly introduce its order, without considering the ancient customs and the traditions of Armenians. This caused the general indignation. Under the fear of death [Neoptolem] it was forced to be removed.
[Arduard] - 317 g. on 284 B.C. - headed the dissatisfaction of Armenians against [Neoptolema] and after its withdrawal proclaimed itself the tsar of Armenia. Then eighty-year-old of the Antigone, counted itself by the ruler of entire Asia Minor, charged to the chief of the [midiyskikh] troops hypo-stria and to [sotrapu] Of [persii] [Askleniadoru] to lead Armenians to the obedience. But in the battle in The [urmiyskoe] lake Armenians gained brilliant victory. Battle with [Ipse] (301 g B.C.), in which it perished the Antigone, helped [Arduardu] to remain on the Armenian throne.
Grant - 284 - 239 yr. B.C. - the successor Of [arduarda], after a number of defeats was forced to recognize himself as the tributary of Syrian [sotrapa] Of [selevka] - [Nikatora], which manages the most extensive territories from the Mediterranean to r. was other